Lesson Planning

Bloom’s Taxonomy

I choose this this as one of my lesson plan components because when I watched this u-tube video it got me thinking of how we structure our lessons in our classroom. I found myself wondering if I am asking questions and assigning tasks and using the small window of learning effectively to engage the learners. Glen when you stated that Effective Domain is the emotional part of Blooms Taxonomy and that we possibly don’t give it the attention it deserves based on student feedback from their most positive learning experience I remembered my most positive learning experience. When I was in college my most inspirational professor was a retired Police Officer for Vancouver Police Department and he told wonderful stories in class that linked the lessons and after class I would go up to him and talk to him about his career and we created a personal relationship, I got my first A in his class and loved to learn in that environment. I know all students don’t learn that way but in my classroom I tell relevant stories to my class from my years as a manager and the feed back from students who come back for the next level of training come and see me and say that my classes helped them.

Characteristics of Adult Learning

I choose Knowles Andragogy to research and discuss for lesson planning because when I watched this u tube video it struck a cord with me. my classroom is filled with students fro 18-60 years old and I am learning they all have different motivational factors. For some of my students Kal Tire is a job and for others it is a Career and for some they don’t know yet if it is right for them so they are testing the waters and seeing if they are making a connection that will keep them motivated. I love the intrinsic vs extrinsic motivational part of this learning, it is new to me and when i ask the students if they have any questions most of them are around how will this benefit me in the future. I find myself really having to explain the whys around how we do things at Kal Tire to separate ourselves from the competitor. The older the student is it seems the more they are intrinsically motivated whether for personal or financial reasons where they are making a connection that the more they put in the more they get out. I will keep drawing from the students personal experience in other industries to further learn lessons and they are exited to tell their personal experiences to the rest of the students and funny thing id i am learning as well.

Media used in Lesson Planning

I choose this to research because I use videos a lot in my lessons. We have a huge initiation right now at Kal Tire to keep each other safe in a dangerous working environment. I have downloaded some safety videos from the internet and each morning before we start our day we watch one of them and have a discussion about the message behind the safety video. Studies show the transfer of learning to be deeper when you watch a video, the learner connects with the videos content and this helps in the transfer of learning into memory. Another way of engaging learners with the video is as a hook to the lesson, I use this with lessons like retail selling where we show a great customer experience at the Seattle Fish Market and talk about what that looks like for Kal Tire and our customers.

Assessment for Lesson Planning

I chose assessment because the importance it has in the subjects that I am teaching right now at Kal Tire.  The first one is Safety we demonstrate the best practice in say, the change over of a tire onto a wheel, then the students demonstrate it in practice 20 times and we assess them at the end of the class and sign them off on it and they go back to there stores and can perform it unsupervised. I will keep using this in my lesson planning, it is essential the I know the best practice of how to demonstrate as it is reflective in the students ability to work safely. One way of our training department to gauge how we are doing is after each of our students finish our classes they must go online and complete an evaluation of the class and the instructor, we promptly get that feedback and improve how we are doing and make necessary adjustment to how we deliver the content and how we change the content to accomplish the best results. Sometimes we pre assess the students with polling questions at the beginning of lessons to get a feel for how much they know about the content and then ask them at the end and compare the results, I like this as its a way of measuring your ability to teach.

Instructional Process- Active Learning

Active participation in learning is the cornerstone of Adult Learning. When students are actively participating in their learning they have longer term recall, and better problem solving skills. I use active learning in all of our lessons as we are teaching adults. Some of the ways we get them involved are role plays, debriefing the role plays, presenting in front of their classmates, facilitating mock staff meetings, performing mechanical inspections in groups, practicing the tasks they will perform on the job after training. I can think of a lesson that we teach at Kal Tire that does not involve active learning and I will keep it in my lesson planning. When I think about the courses I have been apart of I remember the ones that I was an active participant in the most.

 

 

 

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Ted Richards Learning Theory Essay

Kal Tire
Behaviorism-Learning is a change in Behavior
PIDP 3100 Learning Theory Essay
 
Richards, Ted
7/3/2015

 

 

School of Instructor Education, Vancouver Community College

 

 

 

Behaviorism – Learning is a Change in Behavior

Introduction

The theory of Behaviorism was founded by Watson in the 1920s, “behaviorists believe that human behavior is the result of the arrangement of particular stimuli in the environment. If this behavior is reinforced or rewarded, it is likely to continue; if it is not reinforced it is likely to disappear” ( Merriam, Bierema, 2014, p. 26).

This paper will summarize Behaviorism learning theory highlighting key concepts and why I selected it as my topic. I will then discuss how this theory views the role of the learner and how this theory views the role of the instructor. I will also give three examples of what this learning theory would look like in my Kal Tire classroom.

Learning Theory Highlights

Behaviorism is more concerned with behaviors than with thinking, feeling or knowing. Behaviorist theories all focus on a stimulus equals response form of learning. Behaviorism was first originated from the work of John Watson, an American phycologist in the 1920s. Watsons view on psychology was that it should only be concerned with the study of behaviors and not concerned with the mind or human consciousness, he felt that humans should be studied objectively like rats and apes. (Lefrancois, 1972)  Watsons work followed a famous Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov’s experiment with feeding dogs and ringing a bell at the same time. In doing so the dogs would salivate because every time they were feed he would ring the bell and eventually just ringing the bell would make the dogs salivate. This was labelled classical conditioning. ” ( Merriam, Bierema, 2014, p. 26).

Behaviorism in more modern times is more associated with B.F Skinner who took Watsons theory and tested it in the laboratory. Skinner rejected Watsons theory that people learn primarily on conditioning alone and his research concluded that people respond to their environment and if the learned behavior is reinforced positively it will be reinforced or negatively it will disappear. Skinner also found that observable behavior not mental processes or emotional feelings determine whether learning has occurred. Skinner designed a theory called Operant Conditioning a theory that we act the way we do because of certain conditioning from behavior in past experiences. ( Lafrancious, 1972 )

Why I chose Behaviorism

I see many similarities in how I teach and how students learn and behaviorism in my classroom and with how we run our Kal Tire business. Kal Tire rewards its employees with a profit sharing program where 50% of the profits made in the stores go back to the employees each year. How you behave and how you are rewarded go hand in hand. If we give our customers great service we will be rewarded with return business and they will tell their friends and families to deal with Kal Tire and we will be rewarded with more sales and more profit to share. I also see great reference to this learning theory in how we motivate and reward or team members based on performance reviews where you have roles and responsibilities that you are judged on a standard of how well you perform these duties. You are judged and of course what gets rewarded gets repeated so there is great motivation based on more money and recognition tied to your training. These appraisals we do are yearly and goals are set and reviewed every 3 months and feedback is given as to staying on track with the steps to achieve your goals.

Being a father of two children one 13 and one 5 years old I also wanted to choose this learning theory based on how I have seen and am seeing my kids learn from their environment based on being rewarded for or being punished for their behavior. If my sons graded are good on his report card he is rewarded ie yesterday he got a new pair of the trendiest running shoes because his report card was very good for his year-end report card. Earlier in the year I remember his teacher saying he was not prepared well enough for his science test so of course he was not allowed to spend as much time on his Xbox playing games and had to make sure his homework is done.

Role of the learner with Behaviorism Theory

One of the courses I teach at Kal Tire is for brand new team members who come from our store division all across Canada and partake in 6 days of training in Vernon BC where I work. The students are shown many different tasks that are new to them. We first do a demonstration of, for example changing a tire on a tire machine. The students then have to demonstrate the proper techniques a certain amount of times before getting signed off on being competent enough to perform the task on their own upon returning to their stores they work at. The student’s role is to learn the correct tasks based on feedback from the facilitator and to correct the wrong behaviors and they are rewarded for the correct behaviors. The work is very dangerous because the risk is high with the tires filled with air pressure so it is very important to work safely and the students role is to know the consequences of unsafe procedures so they are rewarded for safe work and there is corrective action for unsafe behavior which of course is consistent with conditioning theory of Behaviorism. The role of the learner is to complete the task enough time so that it becomes second nature and is repeated the same way each time and is done safely and quickly.

Role of the Instructor with Behaviorism Theory

The role of the teacher when it comes to this theory is that you are shaping learning behaviors based on rewarding and punishing behaviors to achieve learning in the classroom. A teacher must have clear learning objectives so that there can be a way to measure the amount the student has learned. If the teacher focuses on rewarding the positive learning that the student is doing the student will stay engaged and want to learn because of the recognition. Certainly I do believe that the adult student has to want to learn the task and see benefit in the learning of it for this transaction of learning to happen. I am really fortunate to be teaching for Kal Tire because the student’s career and future development is on the line so there is full engagement in the learning process. I do believe the theory of what gets rewarded gets repeated and as a teacher I try to reward the students as much as possible.  When the teacher has a lot of experience it is easy to jump in and show the students the proper technique when completing a task, and hold them accountable to change the behavior for a positive result.

Examples of what the learning theory looks like in my classroom.

The first example that I want to share and continue in the classroom is role playing. I use role playing and it is consistent with the Behaviorism Theory because it puts into practice what you have learned in the lesson and allows you to practice what you have learned and also gives you feedback as to how you performed in the role play. After the role play we debrief it in a certain way to promote learning, first the student who performed the role play talks about how they feel they did in the role play, second the customer talks about how the student performed the task with some positive and corrective feedback and thirdly there is an observer whom observed the role play and they give their feedback as to how it went. After this they switch roles and they perform this three different times so they get to put into practice what they learned during the role play and the feedback. As the teacher I go from group to group and observe and make sure they are going in the right order for their feedback as well as give some feedback of my own to change the behavior to accomplish the objectives.

The second example that I will use and will keep using in my classroom is how we demonstrate the procedure with our best practices and then allow the students to practice the task under supervision over and over again until they have reached the Kal Tire standard and then sign them off on the task. One of the biggest issues of quality and safety that we are having at Kal Tire is wheels coming loose on the vehicle after we have worked on them. We have a procedure that we teach that demonstrates the safest way to install a wheel onto the vehicle, first I demonstrate it in depth and talk about the consequences of not using the correct steps and then the students practice the steps over and over again until it becomes a habit the happens every time.

My third example is some training that I am working on some curriculum for. I am helping design training for some of the most dangerous types of tires we are having to repair and replace at Kal Tire. I am using the Behaviorist theory in this training as it will be based on demonstrating the correct procedures after being shown how to perform the task. The reward will be based on the wage progression which is attached to more money you will make when you successfully demonstrate the task unsupervised. I am working on how many times you will have to repeat it until you will be signed off. Because of how dangerous the work is it we be highly supervised and there will be no room for error so the students will be changing their behavior immediately if they are not on task.

Summary

I choose Behaviorism as my learning theory because of how it relates to my career and how my career has evolved with Kal Tire from a Sales and Service team member to a Manager and now as a Corporate Trainer. I see the principles of Behaviorism in all aspects of a career at Kal Tire where you are rewarded for positive behavior and punished for negative behavior. Of course the reward comes from being promoted in your career with higher positions which also comes with more money. The punishment is corrective action until you show the ability and if you don’t correct the action you can lose your career opportunity. When I am teaching the new team members in my classroom I use rewards like a compliment when a student reaches the correct procedure and I give corrective feedback as well to improve upon the task at hand. I know there are many different learning theories and I have appreciated the experience of having to research one learning theory and how it pertains to adult learning. I found it difficult to just choose one theory because I appreciate all the theories and how each of them relate differently to how adults learn. It’s funny because I am coaching my sons  12 and 13 year old baseball team right now and our learning theory is demonstrating the skill and practicing it over and over again. The reward is great in a game for the kids when they make a play but I can’t believe how hard on themselves they are when they make a mistake. They actually come off the field in tears, or at the plate after a strike out they come back to the dugout in tears because they want to be perfect on every play. We as coaches are encouraging them that mistakes are okay and that is how you learn and grow into a great ball player by going back out there and trying again.

References

(Lefrancois, 1972)

DeMar, G. (n.d.). Behaviorism.Retrieved September 19, 2003, from http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0497_DeMar_-_Behaviorism.html

 

Sharan B. Merriam & Laura L. Bierema , 2014 Adult Learning Linking Theory and Practice

 

 

 

 

 

Trends and Roles- Peer to Peer Learning

Roles Adult Educators Play in Peer to Peer Learning

When I started teaching adults as a Corporate trainer at Kal Tire 16 months ago I had the idea of the training environment that I was used to in my head from when I went to high school and college 25 years ago and it was that the teacher taught and the students learned. Now, I have taken different courses over the years like Dale Carnegie and The Leadership Challenge as an adult and really enjoyed them but I really didn’t really understand that as an adult we learn very differently than when we are growing up. What I have found so far that is very predominate is that adult learners  learn and absorb the most when they feel that what they are learning will be useful to them in some way in their personal or corporate life. Knowing this now and studying about Adult Learning in the PIDP courses, I am now working on how best to create a learning environment in the classroom, or shop that I teach in. The lessons that I have been working with are set up for adult learning because they are very participative with peer to peer learning, an example of this is a lesson that I teach around converting a telephone call from a customer into a Kal Tire store visit. We begin by listening to a real phone call to one of our stores in Regina and see how the team member who answered the phone does, then we discuss what the greeting and questions should look like from a process that is proven to be effective. This is where the peer to peer learning starts as we break into groups of three and we role play the phone call with a customer and the Kal Tire team member answering the phone and an observer. We role play this 3 times each as the customer and you should see the team members learning from each other. Some have more experience than others and they give feedback as what to try the next role play and the learning is incredible and after the role playing they are ready to answer the phone at their stores after they return from training. These types of learning experiences with role plays as an example really shows me that peer to peer learning is collaborative learning where students can discuss concepts and find solutions to problems. This example also shows that peer to peer learning can build your self-esteem and prepare you for real life situations. Another new insight I have learned with peer to peer learning is to pair up the more experienced team member with the less experienced and have them work together for example changing over a tire, and I challenge the more experienced team member to practice their mentoring skills because great leaders in Kal Tire are usually the best mentors. I am learning that my role as an adult educator is about creating a positive learning environment that students feel safe to participate in and learn as much from their peers as they do from me.

 

Trends in Peer to Peer Learning

Certainly with the environments in which Peer to Peer learning is happening weather physical or virtual many different forms are happening. I find it interesting that one of the drivers of Peer to Peer learning came from a study done with post graduates that they were not developing the most important skill of working together to achieve common results that many or most employer’s desire. I find this very true working for Kal Tire as we are very team focused and I have seen it very often that the great resume gets hired and the team won’t work with this person because they are not team players.  One of the articles called it distributed learning where learners take opportunities to learn without involvement from the teachers or supervisors. In the article on Peer Learning in Research Education they used two different studies of third year students where one student got heavily involved in monthly meetings with other students in her team of learners, she had contacts, networks, and personal and professional relationships, participated regularly in seminars she called “ her own research group of peers “. This student’s feedback was that she was learning and growing in her academics with her peers. The other student spent the bulk of her time in one of the dedicated research rooms. She did not see herself as a member of a research group. She spoke at length of isolation and loneliness of the day to day experience on campus. I really see this type of difference in involvement in my classroom that I am teaching in, the students that get involved in class and contribute to all of the group discussions, table discussions, role playing that we do over the course of our one and two week programs have a way better experience as they meet new friends. Some of the classes I have had have become so close that they start a Facebook page for the class and keep in touch afterword’s and when they come back for more training months later arrange to be together again. Another trend of Peer to Peer learning is being able to skype with other students, this is new to me and was very helpful while skyping we were first of all getting to know each other and then working together to help each other out with our assignment.

Web-Conference

Wow where do I start I really found starting off this course intimidating as I have not taken a college course for a long time let alone on-line.  I had never skyped before and that was really educational for me and meeting my partner and sharing where I am at in my career and seeing where he is at and working together was inspirational. We skyped three different times over the period of a month one of the calls became disconnected so we sent messages through the computer and called on our cell phones and where working that way until we could reconnect on skype. I found that my partner was very helpful even helping me by showing me how to set up my Blog which was new to me as well, I feel like we are friends now and am looking forward to reconnecting during the course. When we selected our topic of Peer to Peer learning it was immediate that we would use this as our topic and we gave each other stories of how in our classroom how we are using Peer to Peer learning. The one thing I learned obout from my partner was that he was patient with me in the computer parts of our conversation as he helped me navigate around the Blog, with this type of patience I’m sure it carries over to his class room and his students feel safe to share their own experiences and partake in Peer to Peer learning.